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For more detailed reviews of pneumococcal disease, epidemiology, or the polysaccharide vaccine, numerous review articles are available ref. Full bibliographic information for each citation is found at the end of the specification, immediately preceding the claims. The disclosure of these references are hereby incorporated by reference into the present disclosure. The method of the present invention involves measuring the concentration of neutrophil defensins HNP and the concentration of lactoferrin, found in a bodily fluid, tissue or a combination thereof, adding these two concentrations together to yield a summed total, and correlating the measured summed total to known summed totals to give an indication of whether the patient is at risk of suffering from inflammatory diseases such as an intraamniotic infection, bacterial meningitis or the sexually transmitted diseases; gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis.
Excerpt s : The present invention relates to a method of screening for inflammatory diseases in a patient. More particularly, this invention concerns the method of screening a patient for the presence of inflammatory diseases such as an intraamniotic infection, bacterial meningitis and the sexually transmitted diseases; gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis, by utilizing neutrophil defensins and lactoferrin, found in a bodily fluid, a tissue or a combination thereof, to give an indication of whether the patient is at risk of suffering from one or more such inflammatory diseases. The methods of disease detection may be divided into two general types: diagnosis and screening.
Diagnosis is the method whereby a physician determines the nature of a disease based upon the patient's signs and symptoms. Screening is the method of suggesting the presence, or the absence, of a particular disease, or class of diseases, in a patient. When a screening test indicates that a patient does not have a disease, in many cases the need for further diagnostic testing has been eliminated.
Used in this manner, screening saves money for patients, health insurance companies and government health programs by precluding the unwarranted diagnostic testing of people shown not to suffer from the disease or class of diseases. To be effective in reducing unnecessary diagnostic testing, however, a screening method must be widely used. In order that a screening method is widely used, the screening test should be relatively accurate, quick, and economical to use.
In addition, screening provides a way for patients to avoid the cost and discomfort associated with the more invasive procedures often necessary to collect the samples required for diagnostic testing. The following are some of the conventional methods used for screening and diagnosing inflammatory conditions such as an intraamniotic infection, bacterial meningitis, and the sexually transmitted diseases; gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. The process to achieve a patent can take several years.
This method, and composition can be used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections, lower respiratory infections, septicemia, bacterial meningitis, and other infections involving Streptococcal pneumoniae. Excerpt s : The following application is a continuation-in-part of U. The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the prophylaxis and treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
In the past, antibiotics have been used to treat various infections. The work of Selman Waksman in the introduction and production of Streptomycetes, and Dr. Fleming's discovery of penicillin, as well as the work of numerous others in the field of antibiotics, are well known. Over the years, there have been additions and chemical modifications to the "basic" antibiotics to make them more powerful, or to treat people allergic to these antibiotics.
Mcaughan, JR. Patents 87 Abstract: An epidural injection is used in medical procedure to administer medication to a patient's epidural space in the spine, usually to alleviate pain. Although effective in purpose, current medical procedure to administer an epidural injection does contain a flaw that exposes the patient to possible infection, usually manifested as an epidural abscess or bacterial meningitis.
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A source for infection stems from the manner the epidural catheter, specifically the proximal end not being inserted into the patient, is traditionally handled throughout the procedure--usually freely hanging, susceptible to breaking the sterile field and becoming contaminated. The current invention, an epidural catheter dispenser system, seeks to eliminate this risk of epidural catheter contamination by maintaining the epidural catheter, especially the proximal catheter end, in a sterile dispenser that can be easily manipulated by a physician. The epidural catheter dispenser system defines an inner cavity in which an epidural catheter may be loaded.
When ready for use, a distal catheter end is extracted from the dispenser's inner cavity through a dispenser aperture on the dispenser's distal end piece, or top, allowing the physician to direct the epidural catheter into an epidural needle bore and into a patient's epidural space. Because the epidural catheter dispenser system and its epidural catheter contents fit easily into the palm of a physician's hand, the proximal catheter end is permanently in a controlled, contained sterile environment throughout the entire catheter placement procedure until extracted from the dispenser.
The current invention minimizes and virtually eliminates the risk of epidural catheter contamination. Thus, the epidural catheter dispenser system provides benefits beyond existing epidural injection procedures including: 1 reduced risk of infection of the patient receiving an epidural injection; 2 easier catheter management for the physician; 3 better control of the medical microenvironment for the physician; and 4 improved medical efficiencies. Excerpt s : An epidural injection is a medical anesthetic technique whereby medication, typically an anesthetic agent with or without a steroidal component, is administered to a patient's spine, specifically in the epidural space.
The epidural space consists of the space between a patient's bony spinal vertebrae and the dura mater, or tough outer layer of the spinal cord. Epidural injections are most commonly used to alleviate pain associated with childbirth or nerve root impingement. Nerve roots are bands of nerves extending from the spinal cord in the vertebral canal to the body through intervertebral foramina, or spaces between vertebrae. Nerve roots can become impinged as a result of a bulging, herniated or ruptured intervertebral disc due to compression or wear.
Nerve root impingement can also occur as a result of a radiculopathy, bony osteophyte or projection compressing the nerve root. For the administration of an epidural injection, a physician will request the patient to lie in a fetal position, whereby the patient's knees are pulled closely to her chest. This creates a convex curvature for the patient's spine, resulting in the widening of the intervertebral space between each vertebra's spinous process. The physician may then palpate the intervertebral space at the level of the spine in which the epidural injection is desired to be administered to alleviate pain.
After locating the precise point to administer the epidural injection, the physician will use an aseptic technique to prep and drape the area and cleanse the area of bacteria to prevent infection. During the prep and drape process, the physician will use iodine and a brush to scrub the skin surface several times. The physician will also drape the local area with sterile cloths, leaving only the small area to administer the epidural uncovered.
Also provided are methods of manufacture of such immunogenic combinations as well as methods of use of such immunogenic combinations in the prevention and treatment of bacterial meningitis, particularly pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Excerpt s : The present invention relates to the fields of immunology, vaccines and the prevention of bacterial infections by immunization, more specifically to polysaccharide- protein conjugates useful as vaccines, vaccine compositions comprising two or more polysaccharide-protein conjugates and methods of vaccination using the same.
Neisseria meningitidis N.
Pathogenic meningococci are enveloped by a polysaccharide capsule that is attached to the outer membrane surface of the organism. Thirteen different serogroups of meningococci have been identified, of which five A, B, C, W, and Y cause the majority of meningococcal disease. Serogroup A is responsible for most epidemic disease, which is rare in the industrialized world but occurs periodically in developing countries. Serogroups B, C, and Y cause the majority of endemic disease and localized outbreaks.
Although more rare, serogroup W outbreaks have increased worldwide in recent years. Current meningococcal vaccines elicit an immune response against the capsular polysaccharide. The antibodies thus generated are capable of complement- mediated bacteriolysis of the serogroup specific meningococci. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been shown to be efficacious in older children and adults Artenstein, M.
Lancet 2: , Subsequent doses of polysaccharide in younger populations elicited weak or no booster responses Goldschneider, I. Also, the protection elicited by the meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines is not long-lasting having been estimated to be between 3 to 5 years Brandt, B. The carrier molecule inputs enhanced immunogenicity to the multiple carbohydrate fragments. The carbohydrate fragments may be capsular oligosaccharide fragments from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which may be serotypes 1, 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F or 23F, or Neisseria meningitidis, which may be serotype A, B, C, W or Y.
Such oligosaccharide fragments may be sized from 2 to 5 kDa. The multivalent molecules may be employed in vaccines or in the generation of antibodies for diagnostic application. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a capsulated, gram- positive bacterium that is present as normal flora in the human upper respiratory tract. It is a frequent and major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and noninvasive bacterial otitis media. Disease incidence is highest in infants and the elderly.
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Many serotypes of S. It was estimated that over 1. Recent studies on the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease ref. In Europe and developing countries, types 1 and 5 are more prevalent than types 4 and 9V. Conjugate vaccine formulations for Europe and elsewhere should include serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F.
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