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The University of Queensland. University of Tasmania. Victoria University. Membranes separations largely operate in the size range of 10 mm and lower ie below the visible detectable limit of single particles. Such particles have a settling velocity in still air of approximately 0.
This sized particle is therefore generally removed from a fluid by means other than gravity settling. Naturally not all particulate separations are carried out by membranes, several other physical or component separations may be used as indicated in Table 2. Permeate flow rates do not provide accurate membrane permeability when normalized on a unit area basis.
The choice of the separation or the degree of contaminant removal can only be made from an appreciation of the contamination and its environment, the filtration or separation method and of the effect of conditions on the separation. The properties of the fluid are important, notably the fluid viscosity.
This parameter is particularly important for liquids as it is a measure of the resistance to flow, higher values of viscosity means a higher pressure differential is required to achieve the same flowrate through a given membrane for example. For certain fluids such as syrups and resins, a modest increase in temperature of a few degrees will cause an order of magnitude reduction in viscosity, with corresponding benefits on pressure requirements. In certain cases the rheological behaviour of the fluid should be identified for example thixotropic fluids such as colloidal gels paints and inks are free flowing under an applied pressure shear force , but on coming to rest return to a gel state with a high viscosity many thousands of centipoise.
Other factors which must be considered are pH, chemical compatibility and surface tension. In the case of gases the compressibility of this phase must be designed for. Whether the gas is inert or essentially non-reactive or reactive must be allowed for in the selection of the separation medium. The presence of moisture in the gas stream can lead to problems in separation. Operation below the dew point can cause condensation which may wet and block the pores of hydrophilic filters.
Typical contaminants of interest are bacteria and bacterial fragments, crystals, colloids and manufacturing debris. The characteristics of the particulate contaminant shape, size, type phase are a major factor in separation procedure.
Handbook of industrial membrane technology
Whether a contaminant maintains its contour spherical or rod shaped depends on its type hard, soft, or liquidMmost particles are not spherical. In filtration, the controlling dimension of a rod-shaped particle depends on how it challenges the filter media. If it collides end-on, its diameter will be the significant dimension; if sideways, its length will be significant.
Spherical contaminants are the most difficult to remove. Size — Particles of concern in filtration can range from viruses of less than 0. Microfiltration is concerned with the removal of particles in the 0. Hard : Contaminants that are rigid and will not deform under pressure or driving force. These include crystals and most manufacturing debris. Soft : Contaminants that are deformable and can change shape under pressure or driving force.
Deformation can alter the shape of the particle enough to allow it to pass through a filter. Filtering at low pressure can help minimize distortion and prevent passage of the contaminant through the filter. A number of factors influence the retention of soft contaminants; these include the number of membrane layers, the amount of applied pressure, the pore size rating of the membrane, and the concentration of the contaminants in the solution to be filtered. Liquid : Contaminants that are miscible or immiscible with another liquid. Immiscible fluids, such as water and oil, can often be separated by microfiltration.
Table 3 gives a list of typical bacterial contaminants, their shape and significance for removal. These bacteria can be removed quite effectively from a range of fluids using filtration. Areas of application are many as is typically illustrated in Table 4. PTFE — polylrafluoroethylene. CA — cellulosic esters. PVC — Polyvinylchloride. PA — polyamide. PE — polyethylene.
PS — polysulfone. PP — polypropylene. S — silicon rubber. PC — polycarbonate. PEst — polyester. PAN — polyacrylonitrile. PI — polyimide.
ISBN 13: 9780815512059
DVB — divinylbenzenc. UF — ultrafiltration. RO — reverse osmosis. GP — gas permeation. MF — microfiltration. ED — electrodialysis. F — filtration. PV — pervaporation. Cellulose acetate celluloseacetate, cellulose-2,5-diacetate, celluloseacetate , ceuulose acetobutyrate, cellulose regenerate, cellulose nitrate.
Polyamide aromatic polyamide, copolyamide, polyamide hydrazide , polybenzimidazole, polysulphone, vinyl polymers, polyfuran, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, PVA, PAN, polyether sulphone, polyolefins, polyhydantoin, cyclic polyurea , polyphenylene sulfide , silicone rubber, PTFE, PVDF, Nylon.
These filtrations may be carried out using non-membrane separations, for example depth filtration using a range of filter materials. The use of alternative filtration techniques is described at length in the Filters and Filtration Handbook— Elsevier Publications. For convenience summarised information on the range of contaminant removal and alternative separation technologies is given in the Appendix.
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